Statistics regards the inventory, arrangement and classification of numerical information obtained by observations. The information is then compared and conclusions are drawn.

A statistical study consists of the following phases:

Data capture.

Organization and representation of data.

Data analysis.

Obtaining conclusions.

Statistical Concepts


A population is the set of all elements that are subjected to a statistical study.

Statistical Unit

An individual or statistical unit is each of the elements of the population.


A sample is a representative set of the reference population. The number of individuals in a sample is less than the population.


Sampling involves the collection of data from a portion of the population rather than the entire population.


The values are the different results that can be obtained in a statistical study. If a coin is tossed 5 times, there are two values: heads and tails.