Statistics regards the inventory, arrangement and classification of numerical information obtained by observations. The information is then compared and conclusions are drawn.
A statistical study consists of the following phases:
Organization and representation of data.
A population is the set of all elements that are subjected to a statistical study.
An individual or statistical unit is each of the elements of the population.
A sample is a representative set of the reference population. The number of individuals in a sample is less than the population.
Sampling involves the collection of data from a portion of the population rather than the entire population.
The values are the different results that can be obtained in a statistical study. If a coin is tossed 5 times, there are two values: heads and tails.