Subjunctive

Subjuntivo

El uso del subjuntivo ('subjunctive') en inglés es muy escaso hoy en día. Lo encontraremos sobre todo en textos formales.

Se emplea más en inglés americano. El inglés británico prefiere las construcciones con should o infinitivo con "to".

Formación

Es bastante simple ya que para todos los verbos es igual al 'bare infinitive' o infinitivo sin 'to'. No añade -s en la tercera persona del singular.

Presente Simple

To be To work
I be I work
You be You work
He be He work
She be She work
It be It work
We be We work
You be You work
They be They work

Pasado

Se corresponde al pasado de indicativo con la excepción del pasado del verbo 'to be', que es 'were' para todas las personas.

To be (Past) To work ( Past)
I were I worked
You were You worked
He were He worked
She were She worked
It were It worked
We were We worked
You were You worked
They were They worked

If I were you

Se usa sobre todo para expresar condiciones hipotéticas y deseos con 'I wish' o 'if only'

Si yo fuera tú.

I wish I were a millionaire.

Ojalá fuera millonario.

If only I had a million dollars.

Si sólo tuviera un millón de dólares.

Para las formas continuas y perfectas se usará la forma subjuntiva de los auxiliares. Es igual para todas las personas; no hay cambio en la tercera persona del singular.

Sujeto + be working (presente continuo).

Sujeto + were working (pasado continuo).

Sujeto + have + past participle (present perfect).

Sujeto + had + past participle (past perfect).

Sujeto + have + been + present participle (present perfec continuous).

Usos

 1  Con ciertas expresiones idiomáticas.

God save the Queen!

Dios salve a la Reina.

God bless you.

Dios te bendiga.

Be that as it may.

Sea como fuera.

 2  Expresar una acción no como algo real sino dependiente de la voluntad, deseo o estado de ánimo de alguien.

Es frecuente su uso en las oraciones subordinadas detrás de ciertos verbos ('demand, 'insist', 'request', 'suggest') y adjetivos ('essential', 'important'), seguidos de 'that'.

People demand that he not be present at the meeting.

La gente demanda que no esté presente en la reunión.

It is important that she arrive early.

Es importante que llegue temprano.

Generalmente en inglés británico se prefiere usar 'should' o el verbo en indicativo.

People demand that he should not be present at the meeting.

It is important that she arrive early.

Ejercicios

Pon el verbo entre paréntesis en la forma de subjuntivo.

1 I wish that you to join to the party.

join

2 Peter recommended that she to arrive soon.

arrive / should arrive

3 It's important that you to read the instructions first of all.

read

4 If I to be you, I'd buy it.

were

5 It's vital that you to take a proper medication.

take / should take (british english)

6 I don't mind as long as he to pay me.

pays

7 She is asking only that she to be given a second chance.

be

8 He talks as if he to be rich.

were

9 He wishes he to have a dog.

had

10 If she to work harder, she'd pass the exam.

worked