Past perfect

Pasado perfecto

El "past perfect" se corresponde con el pretérito pluscuamperfecto de indicativo.

Usamos el pasado perfecto en las siguientes situaciones:

 1  Para referirnos a una acción o estado que comenzó en el pasado y que es anterior a otra acción también pasada.

Past Perfect

He came when I had left.

Él vino cuando me había marchado (la acción de irme es anterior a la llegada de él).

 2  Para acciones que sucedieron en un tiempo específico del pasado.

By midnight more than 1000 soldiers had died.

Para medianoche habían muerto más de 1000 soldados (acción antes de un tiempo concreto).

He hadn´t been in London before 2008.

No había estado en Londres antes de 2008 (estado antes de un tiempo concreto).

 3  Se usa para el estilo indirecto o "indirect speech" para decir lo que alguien ha dicho, cuando esa persona utilizó el present perfect.

'I have finished' Derecha 'He said he had finished'.

'He terminado' Derecha 'Dijo que había terminado'

 4  En algunas oraciones condicionales, se traduce por el pretérito pluscuamperfecto de subjuntivo.

If you'd told me before, I would have gone with you

Si me lo hubieras dicho antes, habría ido contigo

Formación del pasado perfecto

Afirmativo

Sujeto + had + past participle + ...

Forma larga Forma corta
I had worked I'd worked
You had worked You'd worked
He had worked He'd worked
She had worked She'd worked
It had worked It'd worked
We had worked We'd worked
You had worked You'd worked
They had worked They'd worked

Ejemplos

I had fallen asleep when the telephone rang Me había quedado dormido cuando sonó el teléfono
The policemen arrived because there had been an explosion La policía llegó porque había habido una explosión

Negativo

El negativo tiene dos formas:

Forma larga Sujeto + had + not + past participle + ...
Forma corta Sujeto + hadn't + past participle + ...
Sujeto + ´d not + past participle + ...
Forma larga Forma corta
I had not worked I hadn't worked I'd not worked
You had not worked You hadn't worked You'd not worked
He had not worked He hadn't worked He'd not worked
She had not worked She hadn't worked She'd not worked
It had not worked It hadn't worked It'd not worked
We had not worked We hadn't worked We'd not worked
You had not worked You hadn't worked You'd not worked
They had not worked They hadn't worked They'd not worked

Ejemplos

She hadn´t left when I arrived at the party No se había marchado cuando llegué a la fiesta
If you hadn't studied for the exam you would have failed Si no hubieras estudiado para el examen habrías suspendido

Interrogativo

El interrogativo se forma de la siguiente manera:

Afirmativo

Had + sujeto + past participle + ...?

Negativo

Had + sujeto + not + past participle + ...?
Hadn' + sujeto + past participle + ...?
Afirmativo Negativo
Had I worked? Had I not worked? Hadn't I worked?
Had you worked? Had you not worked? Hadn't you worked?
Had he worked? Had he not worked? Hadn't he worked?
Had she worked? Had she not worked? Hadn't she worked?
Had it worked/gone? Had it not worked? Hadn't it worked?
Had we worked? Had we not worked? Hadn't we worked?
Had you worked? Had you not worked? Hadn't you worked?
Had they worked? Had they not worked? Hadn't they worked?

Ejemplos

Hadn't he phoned when the policeman arrived? ¿No había llamado por teléfono cuando llegó la policía?
Had you paid the bill when the waiter came? ¿Habías pagado la cuenta cuando vino el camarero?
What had you done before you left? ¿Qué habíais hecho antes de iros?
Had they not resolved their problems before the divorce? ¿No habían solucionado sus problemas antes del divorcio?

Ejercicios

Pon el verbo entre paréntesis en la forma adecuada del past perfect.

1 I told her that I not go to the cinema.

I'd not (had not/hadn't) gone

2 She thought that she already send him an e-mail.

she'd / had already sent

3 You met her before?

Had you met

4 My wife not sleep the night before our wedding.

My wife had not (hadn't) slept

5 They / not decide to leave?

Had they not decided/Hadn't they decided

6 She / leave the books on the table?

Had she left

7 I wondered if she make that delicious chocolate cake.

she'd (had) made

8 My sister was sad because her husband not buy her any wedding anniversary gift.

had not (hadn't) bought

9 She not understand our questions?

Had she not understood / Hadn't she understood

10 She would have married you if you ask her.

you'd (had) asked



Sitio
Tema
Ejercicios