Verbos modales: 'Should'

Verbos modales: 'Should'

"Should" es un auxiliar modal. Tiene varios usos (condicional, dar consejos, deber u obligación débil...).

Como verbo auxiliar comparte las características de los modales:

- Va seguido de un verbo en infinitivo sin "to", excepto be able to, need to, have to y ought to.

- La tercera persona del singular no lleva -s en el presente simple.

- No necesita añadir el auxiliar do/does para la forma interrogativa y negativa.

- No tiene tiempos compuestos ni progresivos.

- No tiene infinitivo.

Afirmativo

Sujeto + should + verbo en infinitivo sin "to" + ...

El verbo se conjuga igual para todas las personas.

Ejemplo:

Forma larga Forma corta
I should work I'd work
You should work You'd work
He should work He'd work
She should work She'd work
It should work It'd work
We should work We'd work
You should work You'd work
They should work They'd work

Negativo

Sujeto + should + not + verbo en infinitivo sin "to" + ...

Forma larga Forma corta
I should not work I shouldn't work
You should not work You shouldn't work
He should not work He shouldn't work
She should not work She shouldn't work
It should not work It shouldn't work
We should not work We shouldn't work
You should not work You shouldn't work
They should not work They shouldn't work

Interrogativo

Afirmativo

Should + sujeto + verbo en infinitivo sin "to" + ...?

Negativo

Should + sujeto + not + v. en infinitivo sin "to" + ...?

Shouldn't + sujeto + v. en infinitivo sin "to" + ...?

Ejemplo:


Afirmativo Negativo
Should I work ...? Should I not work...? Shouldn't I work...?
Should you work...?
Should you not work...?
Shouldn't you work...?
Should he work...? Should he not work...? Shouldn't he work...?
Should she work...? Should she not work...? Shouldn't she work...?
Should it work...? Should it >not work...? Shouldn't it work...?
Should we work...? Should we not work...? Shouldn't we work...?
Should you work...? Should you not work...? Shouldn't you work...?
Should they work...? Should they not work...? Shouldn't they work...?

Usos del modal "should"

 1  Para indicar deber moral u obligación mitigada o dar consejos. Se traduce por presente, pretérito imperfecto o condicional. Tiene menos fuerza impositiva que "must" y "have to".

I should study more.

Debo/debía/debería estudiar más.

He should be at school before 9.00.

Debe/debía/debería estar en el colegio antes de las 9.

You should go to the doctor.

Debo/debía/deberías ir al médico.

Puede usarse para indicar que algo se debe hacer en el futuro o para expresar que algo se debería haber hecho en el pasado y no se hizo (con la estructura should + have + past participle)

You should go to the doctor tomorrow.

Deberiais ir al médico mañana (futuro).

I should have studied more.

Debí haber estudiado más (pasado).

 2  Para expresar suposición o deducción.

It shouldn't be very expensive.

No debería ser muy caro.

He left two hours ago. He should be at home now.

Se fue hace dos horas. Debe de estar en casa ahora.

Esta idea puede ir en futuro o en pasado ( should + have + past participle).

She should arrive next week.

Debería llegar la semana que viene.

She should have arrived last week.

Debería haber llegado la semana pasada.

 3  Para sugerencias en las oraciones interrogativas (es menos categórico que 'shall').

Should I go to the police?

¿Deberíamos ir a la policía?

 4  Como auxiliar en las condicionales en la primera persona del singular y del plural (I, we) aunque es más común el uso del 'would'.

I should go if I had more time.

Iría si tuviera más tiempo.

We should invite you if we had enough money.

Te invitaríamos si tuvieramos dinero suficiente.

Ejercicios

Completa la oración con la forma afirmativa o negativa del modal should, según corresponda.

1 People drive more carefully.

should / 'd

2 I think you take a holiday.

should / 'd

3 They have an exam tomorrow. They go to the cinema tonight.

should not / shouldn't

4 Alice have never bought that car?

should not / shouldn't

5 leave their bags alone.

should not / shouldn't

6 You  better go before he comes.

should / 'd

7 How much cheese  I buy?

should / 'd

8 You  better not say that again.

should / 'd

9  My doctor said: "You smoke.

should not / shouldn't

10 You have already packed all your things.

should / 'd